• Nepal Projects
  • Nigerian Clinics
  • Global Campaign against IEDs
  • Leadership Training
  • Vehicle Donoations


Personal Use for Digital Downloads Agreement

Personal Use License for Digital Downloads

By downloading these images or video, I agree to comply with the following liscense.

Photographer or videographer ("Content Provider") grants buyer a non-exclusive perpetual personal-use license to download and copy the accompanying image(s) or video(s) (collectively, "Media,") subject to the following restrictions:

  • This license is for personal use only. Personal use means non-commercial use of the Media for display on personal websites and computers, or making image prints or video copies for personal use. The Media may not be used in any way whatsoever in which you charge money, collect fees, or receive any form of remuneration. The Media may not be used in advertising. The Media may not be resold, relicensed, or sub-licensed.
  • Title and ownership, and all rights now and in the future, of and for the Media remain exclusively with the Content Provider.
  • There are no warranties, express or implied. The Media are provided 'as is.'
  • Neither Content Provider nor Partners International Foundation will be liable for any third party claims or incidental, consequential or other damages arising out of this license or buyer's use of the Media.
  • If the these images or videos are used by the recipient in any social media or other personal pages, blogs, etc., the user agrees by downloading the images that he or she will endure they are used in such a manner that they cannot be further downloaded or copied from said sites by third parties.

Varying Perspectives of the Current Threat in Nigeria

30 Nov 2011

This was compiled from sources within U.S. Department of State and Department of Defense sources as well as sources inside Nigeria. The Nigeria sources have close contact with both high level MEND and government leaders.  All sources are non-attribution but can be covered in a personal dialogue.

There is no open source information to determine is ammonium nitrate was used in recent IED attacks. However, Nigeria has a number of companies who are major producers / regional exporters of Ammonia Nitrate so access to this compound would be relatively easy. Given the rural nature of the country and low threshold for corruption it would be difficult to track purchases of this compound.

In the recent arrests in Nigeria, police seized a large number of detonators and blasting cord so access to both industrial (mining / agricultural) as well as military explosives should be considered likely.

Most sub-Saharan African governments lack the control, organization and professionalization to prevent or even track the purchase / theft of the explosives and military hardware needed to conduct attacks on the continent. Obtaining AN for this use would be easy within the region.

Globally extremist groups are transferring IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) to their Al Qaeda Associates in North Africa (AQIM), Boko Haram (BH) in Nigeria, and Al Shabaab (AS) are key players.  It is only a matter of time until IEDs are used by gangs in the United States. Taken together this amounts to a global epidemic of IED use.

The Department of State at the country level is still working to learn chemical composition of IEDs being used by Islamic groups in Northeastern Nigeria.  They have a couple IED related mil-to-mil engagements with the Nigerian army in Jan 2012 and “hope” they will be able to learn more.  They requested Partners International Foundation provide them any notes and information the Global Campaign Against IEDs is able to compile on the situation.

Partners International Foundation (PIF) sources in Nigeria are working to obtain an official perspective on IEDs. But it is highly classified and the Foundation is being told on the condition the source remain non-attribution. According to a high ranking official close to the issue who spoke to PIF under this agreement, "Improvised explosive devices(IEDs) in the Niger Delta were mainly from empty gas containers, pieces of metals including nails and remotely controlled by

GSM signals. Some could be made from fertilizers but no records of such in the Niger Delta." This is from a source who knows about the Niger Delta as a former JTF Commander. PIF is currently working to obtain the Boko Haram perspective, but it appears they are using ammonium nitrate and working with Al Qaeda (as they recently admitted publically).

Within the last few weeks, the Nigerian government retrieved a large quantity of dynamite from the Niger Delta that are some of the explosive ingredients.


As a neutral party Partners International Foundation has the ability to gather important information unavailable to government agencies, but must be supported in order to do so. As the September 2010 Assessment report documents, many militant groups are willing to work with PIF and is concerned about the rise of violent Islamic Militant groups.


Copyright and proprietary to Partners International Foundation 2011. Not for distribution without permission


Partners International Foundation (PIF) is a 100% all volunteer non-profit, non-governmental organization recognized as a public charity under United States Law, section 501(c)(3).

PIF is composed of dedicated individuals who, collectively, possess extensive experience and/or advanced degrees in international affairs (some are sovereigns), military operations, technology development, social science, test and measurement, software design, and program evaluation. We solve problems by working at the community level by identifying and eliminating root causes.

Our major focus efforts currently include the Global Campaign against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDS) (www.campaignagainstieds.org) to stop IED violence and aid victims - including the growing threat from IEDs used by juveniles involved in School Violence.  Helping the Heroes supports military veterans recovering from the wounds of war through rehabilitation; job training and placement; and other programs. We honor and support our first responders for the sacrifices they make daily to protect and keep us safe.

PIF executes by enabling collaboration between local people and international experts to plan, develop, and maintain sustainable livelihoods. Our operating philosophy uses an innovative approach that brings together members of the public and private sectors. These public-private partnerships harness intellect, imagination, and creativity with material and non-material solutions to execute collaborative locally led programs.

Our work includes successes in the United States, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tibet, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, Grenada, Guatemala, and Nicaragua spanning the spectrum of humanitarian efforts from development to crisis response.

Partners International Foundation logo by D. Del Rosario Architects

The Marlin Chronicle

NOTE: The Marlin Chronicle is the Official Newspaper of Virginia Wesleyan College. Students and a visiting professor of Chemistry from Ghana are participating as members of the Analysis team for HASE 2008 as a part of the Foundation's work in supporting graduate and undergraduate education. In the case of HASE 2008 this initiative is working to link students and education institutions in the United States and Africa to promote partnered research at all levels.
Source: Marlin Chronicle Online, September 11th, 2007 | Vol. XXIV Iss. 10

NOTE: The Marlin Chronicle is the Official Newspaper of Virginia Wesleyan College. Students and a visiting professor of Chemistry from Ghana are participating as members of the Analysis team for HASE 2008 as a part of the Foundation's work in supporting graduate and undergraduate education. In the case of HASE 2008 this initiative is working to link students and education institutions in the United States and Africa to promote partnered research at all levels.

Source: Marlin Chronicle Online, September 11th, 2007 | Vol. XXIV Iss. 10


Trio of Marlins travel to Ghana


By Laura Norris, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

marlin-chronicle If you are unfamiliar with what it means to be a humanitarian, many of you may also be unaware that there are students and staff on campus who are humanitarians on an international scale. According to the Encarta dictionary, a humanitarian is defined as a caring person, committed to improving the lives of other people. As both writers and editors for The Marlin Chronicle, Katie Morris, Lauren Perry, and Elizabeth Appleyard can proudly categorize themselves as humanitarians because in January they will be attending a summit in Ghana that will address the health crisis in Africa.

It all started with Katie Morris, a junior who was informed about the January summit by her father, Colonel Robert Morris. Colonel Morris is a humanitarian who works, on the side, with Partners International. According to their website, www.partners-international.org, Partners International is a “public charity, not-for-profit organization composed of professionals in the field of humanitarian assistance planning and operations, organizational efficiency, and quality management philosophy.”

marlin-map For one to two weeks this January, these three Marlins will travel to Africa as a part of the Partners International program HASE, Healthy Africa Scenario Exercise that “will bring together leading stakeholders from the Africa region and internationally to deliberate, and act, on Africa’s response to global epidemic risks.”

According to World Health Organization’s annual report, AIDS, Ebola, SARS, and the Avian Flu are wreaking havoc on the African continent. They continue to have a devastating impact on not only the African people but also Africa’s economy and security. Partners International seeks to “broaden and deepen dialogue, and contribute to actions that will help build Africa’s national and regional capacity for self-sufficiency.”

By exploring the area and its people, making contacts with the culture, and recording all of the information gained on the trip in cooperation with Partners International, these three students together hope to bring the health crisis in Africa to the forefront of the VWC community.

Senior Elizabeth Appleyard also conveys a great interest in improving the lives of those less fortunate. She decided to go on this trip because of the uniqueness of the opportunity and experience available to her in Africa. As a writer and editor for the Marlin Chronicle, Appleyard hopes to bring back all of the information about the health crisis in Africa and help spread the word across the Norfolk campus. She said that “this trip will not only allow me to see first hand the devastation that is possible in another country, but hopefully in some small matter allows me to assist on the road to recovery. I am a firm believer that every little bit helps, so maybe through what I can document there might bring some peace to someone or at least get people thinking.”

Features editor Lauren Perry, having visited Vietnam this past summer, got the invite from Dr. Ruehlmann, who was also notified about the trip by Colonel Morris. Perry hopes that the trip proves to “be a meaningful and important experience and that the information gathered and reported on will have an impact on people.”

Morris, Appleyard, and Perry all have a similar goal in mind. However, this isn’t the first time that Morris has sought to bring attention to an international issue. As a resident of Johnston Hall, she does a project every year to in order to maintain her residency in this hall. Last April, Morris did a project on the genocide in Rwanda. She states that she makes it her personal motive to always “get behind a good cause, tell people, and that’s what makes it a worthwhile goal.”

Morris also hopes that her involvement in humanitarian efforts will spreawd among other students on campus. In the future she hopes to continue participating in these conferences to encourage more student involvement. The generated interested in humanitarian aide could possibly even spark more interest in studying abroad. Being heavily involved in the OIP office, Office of International and Intercultural Programs, directed by Lena Johnson, Morris states that “there are more international programs than people realize to include I.C.E. and I.S.O. (International Student Organization).”

“Nobody can do everything, but everyone can do something,” is a creed by which those participating in the African summit, including Morris, Perry, and Appleyard, live by. In assisting overseas, they are not only spreading hope for others, but also serving as an inspiration to get involved in Africa and humanitarian efforts here on the home front. Flora Edwards, a South African born industrialist, reminds us that “in helping others, we shall help ourselves, for whatever good we give out completes the circle and comes back to us.”

Make A Donation